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How to Buy Bitcoin

Learn how to buy bitcoin online with Paypal, credit card or with cash in person

Bitcoin is the gateway to the world of cryptocurrencies that come with infinite possibilities. If you are just starting with cryptocurrencies, you might be wondering how to buy bitcoin the safest and fastest way.

Read on as we look into different ways you can buy some Bitcoin. (If you want to skip the reading and just find out the best place to buy Bitcoin and other digital assets online click here.)

how to buy bitcoin locally

Discover people selling Bitcoin in your community

LocalBitcoins is a good start for most people, as their platform allows you to search through various sellers and buyers of Bitcoin in your local area as well as other cities in the world. What makes LocalBitcoins a favorite go-to source?

Well, you can buy bitcoins without any form of identification, by employing the reviews and feedback scores to help you pick a genuine seller. You can meet someone in person to pay for Bitcoin with cash (LocalBitcoins removed this option. Source), send them money through PayPal, Neteller, Skrill, or arrange to deposit at their bank branch. Individual sellers set their fees and LocalBitcoins act as escrow.

Buy Bitcoins Online – The Easy Way

Other similar and alternative platforms are Mycelium Local trader, Wall of Coins, LibertyX, and Paxful. Finally, with a little search for local Bitcoin meetups in your area, via meetup.com or even Facebook, you can be part of a lot of one-on-one buying and selling of Bitcoin.

buy bitcoin on exchanges with credit card

Use a Bitcoin Exchange

Similar to a typical forex broker with a little twist, cryptocurrency exchanges are businesses that can help you buy Bitcoin using your bank account or credit card. Do be aware that most bitcoin exchanges require some form of KYC (Know your Customer), before allowing you to carry out transactions on their platform. It is also important you take responsibility for your bitcoins by storing them in hardware wallets or cold storage, as very few exchanges out there are regulated and insured. Finally, beware of scam exchanges; visit our Bitcoin Exchange page, where you will find lists of leading exchanges.

Check Out The Best Crypto Exchanges Here

 Use a Bitcoin ATM

bitcoin atm cryptocurrency
A cryptocurrency ATM in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. This model is a “two-way”, meaning users may buy or sell Bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies. Source: Wikipedia

If you have ever used regular ATMs, Bitcoin ATMs work in a very similar way. The only difference is that not all regular ATMs have the functionality of deposit and withdrawal. Most Bitcoin ATMs work in these simple steps when carrying out a buy transaction:

Step 1: Insert your phone number

Your phone number allows for communicating with Bitcoin seller via SMS.

Step 2: Insert verification code

Note that the verification code is sent to you after you enter your phone number.

Step 3: Scan Wallet QR Code

In a buy transaction, scanning your wallet QR Code is done by facing your phone to the bitcoin ATM.

Step 4: Insert Cash

The procedure for selling your Bitcoin is similar, only with a difference that the machine will print out a QR-code ticket which contains the public address and BTC value you are sending. Please ensure you keep your ticket until the point the ATM dispenses your cash on the same machine.

Also, most Bitcoin ATMs will specify the type of banknotes accepted by the machine.

Please do your due diligence on the fees charged when you carry out these transactions.

You can start by visiting Coin ATM Radar which has an interactive map, helping you find the closest Bitcoin ATM near you.

Best Bitcoin Exchanges

Note: Leaving all of your bitcoin and crypto holdings on exchanges exposes you to highly varying degrees of safety, security, privacy, and control over your funds and information as most exchanges are in custody of your private key. Perform your own due diligence and choose a wallet where you will keep your bitcoin before selecting an exchange. Also, ensure to safely keep your seed phrase for easy recovery of your wallets in case you lose access to your private key.

What are Cryptocurrency Exchanges?

Cryptocurrency exchanges are web-based portals similar to market maker brokers, where buyers and sellers can exchange one cryptocurrency for another, or for traditional fiat currencies such as the U.S Dollar, Euro, or the Pound. If you are the serious type of investor that wants to trade these new assets professionally, it will be advised that you subscribe with an exchange that carries out KYC (Know your customer).

Reason being that, the cryptocurrency space at the moment can be a wild-wild-west, with faceless companies springing up without proper regulations. However, if you are only interested in making a quick conversion from one currency to another, there are trading platforms that offer such service. We can break down these exchanges into 3, which include:


These are companies that offer a web-based or stand-alone platform, similar to Forex trading market maker brokers. They set the ask and bid price of the cryptocurrency, as well as charge spreads, in some other case, commissions.

Direct Trading Exchanges:

They provide a platform that allows participants from all over the world to exchange/ trade currencies directly between themselves. On these platforms, Bitcoin or any Altcoin price is not determined by the Exchange, it is purely demand and supply.

Trading Platforms:

These are web portals that connect buyers and sellers and take a fee from each transaction.

cryptocurrency exchanges

How do Cryptocurrency Exchanges work?

Do your Due diligence before you sign up with an exchange!

Below are important considerations when you go shopping for a broker. Consider these a market checklist.


Before you make that first cryptocurrency trade, it is necessary you do a little research on the trust level of the exchanges. Good sources where you’ll get an unbiased opinion on any exchange include the Bitcoin sub Reddits and BitcoinTalk.

Security of website/Servers:

As we are currently living in a world where a vast majority of people have no idea how Wi-Fi works, and with sophisticated technologies coming out every day/week, it may surprise you that some companies have no measure for securing these new assets. An example is Mt.Gox where depositor/traders coins were stolen. Again do a little bit of research into how Bitcoin is safely stored, and inquire on how these companies are doing this. This is because most exchanges hold traders private keys, and in the even, they get hacked, you stand the risk of losing your entire investment, as Bitcoin transactions are irreversible.

Geographical Restriction:

It is common that certain exchanges are fully open to only users of a particular geographic location. Find out from the brokers, or through Reddit, and BitcoinTalk on location-based restrictions. Check out a comprehensive list of exchanges at the end of this article that we consider for different countries of the world based on popularity and usability.

Know Your Customer (KYC):

Most exchanges based in Europe and the United States require some form of identification before you can be allowed to carry out Bitcoin transactions. This is in compliance with government regulations against money laundering and terrorist funding. If you are the type that prefer being anonymous, there are exchanges who offer limited services for a particular level of verification. You have a limited withdrawal limit for remaining anonymous.

Structure of Transaction fees:

Find out if the transaction fees offered by the exchange are fixed, varied percentage, or a spread in the case of a market maker. It will be in your benefit to know this, as their fees may or may not favor you r investment strategy.

Methods of Payment:

This, to many, may be the reason for getting in to Bitcoin trading in the first place. Find out about the withdrawal and deposit methods for the exchange, and how long it may take for these transactions to be confirmed. Having a broker offering multiple deposit and withdrawal methods is the way to go. However, you should note that credit card payments often attract high transaction fees as they are susceptible to fraud. Transactions via Bank wire usually take longer, as it takes time for banks to process the transactions.

Transparency of data:

Market maker brokers often allow you a demo account to try out their platform data. Please note that this data may be slightly different from the live data. This shouldn’t be a problem if your strategy is a buy and hold strategy, but for short term trading, it might be.
It is also important to check the reliability of their volume and order book.

Exchange/Broker Closing Time:

Cryptocurrencies are different from Fx trading currencies in the area of closing time. Most Forex brokers close on Fridays, to open Monday morning. Cryptocurrencies are open and traded Sunday to Sunday, so ensure to subscribe with an exchange/broker that offer such service. Those that don’t often have their customers see currencies experiencing huge gaps.

Variety of Fiat and Cryptocurrency pairs:

A broker/exchange with a wider market range provides you with options to diversify your risk. Since the cryptocurrency market is still young, brokers that offer new ICO tokens for trading may only be available in not too popular exchanges. Bear in mind that these may be risky, although have huge prospects of higher returns.

Which are the best Bitcoin Exchanges?

localbitcoins exchange

Check it out


LocalBitcoins is a popular go-to source for most newcomers in the crypto space.

Why is this so?

This is because it is a P2P Bitcoin exchange with buyers and sellers in thousands of cities around the world, allowing you to meet up with people in your local area; buy or sell bitcoins in cash.

Sending money through PayPal, Skrill or Dwolla are other popular payment methods.

You can even make arrangements with a buyer/seller for cash deposit at a bank branch.

Sellers who opt to set their exchange rates are charged a commission of 1% by LocalBitcoins.

For secure trading, the LocalBitcoins platform rate traders with a reputation ranking, along with publicly displaying previous transaction activities with other members of the community.

Localbitcoin holds sellers money in escrow once a trade is placed. Upon confirmation of trade completion by the seller, the funds are automatically released to the buyer.

A conflict resolution team is setup by Localbitcoins for cases where there are misunderstandings or glitches between buyers and sellers.

There is more information on LocalBitcoins FAQ

  • Pros:  It is great for anonymity since no ID is required.  It is available globally, there is definitely a local bitcoin in your area, and it is beginner friendly. The service is usually free with instant transfers.
  • Cons: It is quite difficult to buy huge volumes of bitcoins and the exchange rates are often high.

binance cryptocurrency exchange

Join now


Binance is a cryptocurrency exchange and ICO launching platform that supports multiple languages.

The name was coined from two words, which are ‘binary’ and ‘finance’, where digital technology and finance meet.

Binance according to the CEO Changpeng Zhao is blockchain exchange 2.0, where he considers blockchain exchange 1.0 as those exchanges that convert traditional fiat currencies to either Bitcoin, Ethereum or Litecoin, … At the moment there is a whole slew of second generation coins which need a different kind of exchange.

The company boasts of their matching algorithm being capable of sustaining 1.4million order per second. This makes them one of the fastest exchanges today.

With experience in both finance and crypto space, Binance has been able to establish links with partners, who are capable of providing sufficient liquidity for the exchange.

Their customer service is relatively good, which minimal complaints from customers.

As an ICO launching platform, Binance had TRON as the first project t launched on the platform.

  • Pros: Ease of opening an account, an ok customer service.
  • Cons: No fiat deposit allowed.

changelly best cryptocurrency exchange

Try it out


This is a web based cryptocurrency exchange that unlike some other mentioned exchanges on our list, offers some degree of anonymity as transactions do not require e-mail confirmation.

Changelly was birthed as a startup prototype in 2013 by a Bitcoin mining pool called MinerGate.

Developments in 2014 were focused on the platform as an independent exchange service. Changelly was finally released to the public in April 12, 2015, after major updates.

Changelly has a primary objective of making cryptocurrency exchange extremely user friendly. This is done by the company acting as a link between a link and other crypto trading platforms, such as Bittrex, Poloniex etc.

Changelly is secured on an HTTPS security protocol, and all user accounts are mandated to have two-factor authentication.

The team took a step further to provide widgets for web publishers in the cryptocurrency community. This gives visitors to such third party platforms a one stop shop to carry out exchange of cryptocurrencies without having to leave the publishers page.

  • Pros: Extremely easy to use platform and widgets, with good user experience.
  • Cons: Varied transaction fees.

kucoin exchange


This is a China based blockchain asset exchange company, offering services in both English and Chinese language.

The company was founded by blockchain enthusiasts who have been relevant in companies like Ant Financial and GF Securities.

Kucoin primary goal is to provide their customers with ease of transacting with unique digital assets and cryptocurrency exchange services, with safety/security as a primary objective.

Their platform offers appealing user interphase and the user experience is great.

As a way of marketing and encouraging users to trade more, KuCoin offers a bonus plan that is based on invitation.

At the point of writing this article, they charge a trading fee of 0.1%.

More information on trading fees, withdrawal and deposit can be found here.

You can also find information related to their official White Paper, Announcements, API, and Bonus Calculator.

  • Pros: An incentivized cryptocurrency exchange, allowing users to make passive income via referrals. Their platform offers most new ICO crypto that are not available on other exchanges.
  • Cons: Still new in the exchange industry compared to older exchanges.

coinbase buy sell bitcoin online


Coinbase has the backing of some trusted investors and used by millions of customers globally.

It ranks as one of the most popular exchanges in the world, offering a platform with great user experience.

On the Coinbase platform, users can securely buy, use and store digital currencies such as bitcoins and Ether through a digital wallet available on Android & iPhone.

Coinbase also has a Global Digital Asset Exchange (GDAX) subsidiary which also allows more experienced traders carry out trading operations. GDAX currently operates in the US, Europe, UK, Australia, Canada, and Singapore. GDAX does not currently charge any transfer fees for moving funds between your Coinbase account and GDAX account. For now, the selection of tradable currencies will, however, depend on the country you live in. For more information, visit the Coinbase FAQ and GDAX FAQ.

  • Pros: They are very secure with a good reputation and reasonable fees. The platform is user-friendly, even for beginners, and stored currency is covered by Coinbase insurance.
  • Cons: A not so good Customer support, limited payment methods and supported countries. Their approach towards a global service delivery is not uniform. Finally, their subsidiary GDAX is only suitable for technical traders.

bittrex crypto


This is a cryptocurrency exchange based in the U.S.A with full regulation, designed with state of the art security and scalability.

The exchange boasts of lightning fast trade execution and stable wallets. Bittrex is user-friendly for both newbies and veteran traders alike.

Among the coins traded on Bittrex are Bitcoin, BitcoinCash, Cardano etc.

  • Pros: Safe and secure transactions, fast trade execution, fully regulated.
  • Cons: For traders who prefer to remain anonymous, Bittrex users must pass through KYC.

poloniex crypto asset exchange


Poloniex was founded in 2014, and has grown to become one of the world’s leading cryptocurrency exchanges.

Visiting their website, you will notice a no-nonsense approach in their design, however, they concentrate more on the security of the platform.

They offer a variety of Bitcoin cryptocurrency pairs which are about a hundred, as well as data analysis tools for advanced users.

As one of the most popular trading platforms with the highest trading volumes, users will always be able to close a trade position.

Poloniex employs a volume-tiered, maker-taker fee schedule for all trades so fees are different depending on if you are the maker or the taker.

For makers, fees range from 0 to 0.15%, depending on the amount traded.

For takers, fees range from 0.10 to 0.25%.

There are no fees for withdrawals beyond the transaction fee required by the network. Poloniex recently closed their chatbox functionality sometime late 2017.

  • Pros: Poloniex have a fast account creation process with very rich features. They also offer Bitcoin lending, margin trading, and  high-volume trading. Their platform is user-friendly with low trading fees, open API, and they recently require KYC.
  • Cons:  Their customer service is really slow, and they have no support for traditional fiat currencies.

hitbtc bitcoin exchange


HitBTC started off as a cryptocurrency exchange based in Europe which is operated by Hit Techs Limited in London.

The company was founded in 2013, but further launched in 2014.

Not too long after its launch, HitBTC was hacked in 2015.

Hit Solution Ltd was registered under Hong-Kong jurisdiction with number 2510720 under the registered trade mark HitBTC again with the following domain name: http://www.hitbtc.com.

Following the hack of 2015, the company assured that customer funds were not affected, and promise to buffer up safety and security through two-factor authentication, use of cold storage, and advanced encryption.

HitBTC provides a level playing ground for beginners and expert algorithmic traders alike through the use of their robust API.

Users are allowed to trade cryptocurrencies which include but not limited to Bitcoin, Ethereum, Litecoin, Monero, Dash, and so many other alt coins.

For complete newbies to the world of trading or cryptos generally, HitBTC offers the possibility of demo trading, which is not too popular among exchanges.

  • Pros: Offers demo trading for newbies and traders who want to try out their strategies/trading bots. HitBTC allows traders make deposits and withdrawals in traditional fiat currencies such as the U.S dollar and Euro. They offer low fees of 0.1% on every transaction.
  • Cons: Their terminal is more suited for more experienced and professional traders.

shapeshift trade crypto assets


This is a leading exchange that supports a variety of cryptocurrencies ranging from BitcoinEthereumMoneroZcash, Dash, Dogecoin and many other altcoins.

Do you want to make instant trades without account sign up?

Then Shapeshift is the right service for.

They do not allow users to purchase crypto’s with debit/credit cards or any other payment system.

The platform has a no fiat policy and only allows for the exchange between bitcoin and other supported cryptocurrencies.

For more info, please visit the Shapeshift FAQ

  • Pros: Shapeshift has a very Good reputation in the Bitcoin and Altcoin community. Their website is user friendly, with dozens of Crypto’s available for exchange, and fast reasonable prices.
  • Cons: Their mobile App can be considered average, and they offer no exchange of fiat currency. Also have limited payment options and tools.

coinmama buy cryptocurrency


Coinmama accepts credit card or cash via MoneyGram from anyone.

They are awesome for making instant purchases of digital currency using your local currency.

Not all functionalities on Coinmama are available to all countries, even though Coinmama has a global coverage.

The portal is available in English, French, Italian, German, and Russian. Visit the CoinMama FAQ

  • Pros: The Coinmama platform has a great user interphase and user experience. Most importantly, they have a good reputation with a good range of payment options, available globally including fast transaction time.
  • Cons: They have such high exchange rates, a premium fee for credit card, no bitcoin sell function, and average user support.

bisq decentralized exchange


Bisq is similar to Localbitcoin in that it is a peer to peer exchange that allows users access to buying and selling of bitcoins in exchange for fiat currencies or cryptocurrencies.

The service is being marketed as a truly decentralized and peer to peer exchange that is instantly accessible and requires no need for registration or reliance on a central authority.

Unlike Localbitcoin, Bisq never hold user funds and no one except trading partners exchange personal data.

The platform offers great security with multisig addresses, security deposits and purpose-built arbitrator system in case of trade disputes.

For persons seeking complete anonymity, Bisq is the perfect platform for you. You can start by visiting the Bisq FAQ.

  • Pros: Their reputation is good, secure & private. Bisq has a vast amount of cryptocurrencies available, no sign-up, decent fees, open source, open to a more global market and great for advanced traders.
  • Cons: Limited payment options, average customer support, not beginner friendly.



Bitstamp was founded in 2011 as European Union based bitcoin marketplace.

They pride their platform as being one of the first generation bitcoin exchanges that has built up a loyal customer base.

Bitstamp is well known and trusted throughout the bitcoin community as a haven.

It offers advanced security features such as two-step authentication, multisig technology for its wallet and fully insured cold storage.

They have a 24 hrs. 7 days a week customer support and a multilingual user interface. Getting started is relatively easy, upon opening a free account and making a deposit, users can start trading immediately.

Visit the Bitstamp FAQ and their Fee Schedule.

  • Pros: They have a high-level of security and good reputation. Bitstamps’ service has a wider global coverage and availability with low transaction fees, and equally great for large transactions.
  • Cons: Their platform is not very beginner friendly, coupled with limited payment methods, and high deposit fees.

bitcoin exchange cex.io


Cex.io offers a broad range of trading services in bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies .

This is one of the platforms that allow an easy trading of fiat money with cryptocurrencies and cryptocurrencies for fiat money.

For seasoned traders who will want to venture into professional trading of Bitcoin, they offer a user friendly dashboard for margin trading.

CEX also offers a brokerage service which provides novice traders an extremely simple way to buy bitcoin at prices that are more or less in line with the market rate.

The Cex.io website is secure and intuitive and cryptocurrencies can be stored in safe cold storage. Visit the Cex.io FAQ

  • Pros: They have a good reputationgood mobile product, and support for credit cards. Their platform is also beginner friendly, with reasonable exchange rate, and a global support.
  • Cons: Cex.io has an average customer support, and making deposits can be expensive.

cobinhood buy bitcoin cryptos zero tradeing fee


Cobinhood is a cryptocurrency exchange founded in 2017, with headquarters in Taiwan, Taipei City.
The company was founded by a successful entrepreneur Popo Chen, who also happens to be the CEO.

Marketed as next generation cryptocurrency, a very interesting point about this exchange is that they offer zero transaction fees and zero cut on margin funding interest earnings.

Services offered by Cobinhood includes cryptocurrency exchange/margin trading, as well as an ICO under writing service, guaranteeing 100% reserve for cryptocurrency deposits.

The platforms unusual name Cobinhood was inspired by Robinhood, which happens to be a commission free trading platform for Securities which includes Stocks and Bonds. Cobinhood’s primary aim is to be to cryptocurrencies what Robinhood app is to Equities.

The company Cobinhood has a mission to protect retail investors from fraudulent ICOs Initial Coin Offerings by carrying out due diligence on the coin/tokens that seek to be listed on their exchange.

  • Pros: Free transaction, protection from fraudulent ICOs, sub-millisecond latency of trade execution allowing for effective (HFT) High frequency trading.
  • Cons: One of the newest exchanges in the space. More suitable to experienced traders.

Bitcoin Exchanges Categorized based on Geographic Location

Local Bitcoins


AnyCoin Direct
The Rock Trading




Bitcoin Australia
Independent Reserve


Mercado Bitcoin


Bitcoin Cambodia


Canadian Bitcoins





Costa Rica







Bitcoin Indonesia


Bits of Gold











New Zealand

Independent Reserve









South Africa


South Korea




United Arab Emirates


United Kingdom


United States




Visit the review section for detailed reviews on some of the above cryptocurrency bitcoin exchanges.

Visit Coin ATM Radar to find local Bitcoin ATMs.

Support Bitcoin

Bitcoin, an open source peer to peer network evolved from a small group of contributors and believers, into a global ecosystem of which there is still more work to be done.

To broadcast the good words, go mainstream and help improve the Bitcoin network, there are different ways any individual or entity can participate in this broad space.

Get to use Bitcoin

use bitcoin Traditional fiat currencies are valuable because a group of people, race or ethnicity agreed that it should, hence a legal tender.

A first and natural step as a way of supporting Bitcoin is to use it.

Bitcoin as a form of value transfer can benefit anybody in so many ways.

Other than accepting it for transactions, or using it for purchases, it is often referred to as digital gold.

Although the responsible use of Bitcoin is advised, it can serve as a haven for people living under oppressive central authorities.

In summary, it can be purchased, sold, and exchanged for other currencies at specialized cryptocurrency exchanges. A perfect form of digital currency based on its speed, security, with no barrier to entry.

bitcoin network blockchain

Be the Network

Join a cluster of nodes and boost the strength of the Bitcoin network by maintaining a full node software running on your computer/server, relaying transactions as well as security.

So you may ask, What is a full node client?

A full client, or “full node,” is a client that stores the entire history of bitcoin transactions (every transaction by every user, ever), manages the users’ wallets, and can initiate operations directly on the bitcoin network. A full node handles all aspects of the protocol and can independently validate the entire blockchain and any transaction. A full-node client consumes substantial computer resources for example more than 60GB disk space, 2GB of RAM) but offers complete autonomy and independent transaction verification.

Apart from a full node, you can also opt for a lightweight Client or a third party API client.

bitcoin mining

Bitcoin Mining

An earlier and most common way of getting involved with Bitcoin is through mining. By mining bitcoins, you help with the validation of bitcoin transactions, securing the network and creation of new Bitcoins. Mining is a process that requires specialized nodes on the network to solve a computationally and energy-intensive puzzle to protect the system. For starters, considering the sporadic increase in the difficulty, it is easier to join smaller decentralized mining pools. An example is  P2Pool or pools with getblocktemplate (GBT) support.

Language Translation

Similar to the approach Wikipedia use in reaching a wider audience of racial and ethnic diversity, translating or contributing to translations of Bitcoins documentation and uses tremendously help increase Bitcoin popularity, adoption, and availability.

You can pick from a myriad of projects such as:

Bitcoin Core – Bitcoin.orgBitcoin Wiki

bitcoin programing and development


Coding today is considered a superpower.

The seasoned developer and rookies alike can take advantage of the open source nature of Bitcoin, by making contributions to the Bitcoin Github code repository.

As a free software, you can start by cloning the repository get familiar with the source code and contribute to the general improvement of the Bitcoin.

For more ambitious developers, a suggestion may be to build disruptively new services or applications that embed Bitcoin at its core.

Donation & Organizations

There are a good number of volunteers, working on Bitcoin-related projects. Most of these kind folks are doing it for the love and progress of the Bitcoin network.

You can quickly start by making a free will bitcoin donation to any of such legit organizations. If you have the capacity, you can directly fund such projects that you have faith in their potentials to spread the good news of Bitcoin.

While you do this, please be mindful of cyber attackers who may attempt to replace the intended organization’s address with theirs.

A validation tip is to check the first and last three characters of the receiving organization bitcoin address.

A more voluntary approach is to join such groups and participate in their projects and meetups

bitcoin on social media

Get the Word Out

You can host a talk, start a meetup, or become a public speaker/ bitcoin evangelist.

A lot of people are interested in Bitcoin but are often convinced when they see and hear someone else testimony.

Starting a vlog/blog is also a great way to go.

You may be surprised that people may even pay for your custom made Bitcoin T-shirt.


A great source for bitcoin documentation is Provencrypto Bitcoin wiki, with access to useful documentation and constant improvements of the contained information.

You can help to improve these resources and keep them up to date.

Join Social Communities

Becoming an affiliate of meetups and Bitcoin communities cannot be overemphasized.

We mainly learn by doing and teaching, share your knowledge of the technology with newbies and interact with other Bitcoin enthusiasts. You can learn more about Bitcoin every day, get involved in exciting projects.

Bitcoin Communities

Find interesting people, groups and communities around Bitcoin.


BitcoinTalk Forum

Similar to conventional forums, BitcoinTalk was built off an open-source forum content management system called simple machine forum [SMF], hence a familiar environment.

The forum is categorized as follows:


This category is further broken down into sub-categories  such as Bitcoin Discussion, Development & Technical Discussion, Mining, Bitcoin Technical Support, and Project Development


This category hosts discussions on economics, Marketplace, and Trading Discussion


Although you could start from any part of the forum, however, this group hosts new sections for Beginners & Help, off-topic, Politics & Society, and Archival.

Alternate Cryptocurrencies:-

You may be wondering; this is a bitcoin forum, why talk about alternative cryptocurrencies. Well, you have to be aware of the latest happenings around you so you can adapt, accordingly. The Altcoins category hosts Altcoins discussions, Altcoins Announcements, mining Altcoins, Altcoins marketplace, Altcoins Speculation.


Want to feel at home in your local language? Well sure, here is the right place for you. You might even find people within your community that are in the cryptocurrency space and interact.

Reddit’s Bitcoin Community

The Bitcoin community just had to have an online presence on Reddit, in the form of a subReddit given the timely, interactive, personalized, participatory, and absorbing nature of the community. Bitcoin subReddit is a cool community of Bitcoin enthusiasts, offering a place where you go to see what people have found. So if you love Bitcoin and its blockchain technology, then you are welcome aboard.

Bitcoin StackExchange (Q&A)

Bitcoin Stack Exchange is a question and answer site for Bitcoin crypto-currency enthusiasts. It only takes a few minutes to Join them.

Social networks

Google+ Bitcoin Community

Join the Bitcoin community on Google+. If you are familiar with other popular social network portals and micro-blogging platforms, then you won’t want to miss out on a massive aggregation of latest Bitcoin discussions and happenings.

Twitter Search

Meet Bitcoiners on Twitter, and follow up with latest trend posts on your favorite 140-280 character micro-blogging service

Facebook Page

The social media/tech giant is not left out of the action. Follow up with breaking news and gossips on Facebook.


Are you considering organizing or joining Bitcoin group meetings in real life? Then you may want to visit these Bitcoin online social networking services, for upcoming meetups in your area.

Bitcoin Conferences and Events

Bitcoin Meetup Groups

Bitcoin Meetups on BitcoinTalk

Bitcoin Meetups on the Wiki

The bitcoin meetups on the wiki contains detailed schedule of upcoming meetups, date, location, intervals, and the organizers.

IRC Chat

Connect with fellow bitcoin developers and enthusiasts alike by using the following hash tags on IRC Chat

IRC Channels on freenode.

#bitcoin (General Bitcoin-related)

#bitcoin-dev (Development and technical)

#bitcoin-otc (Over The Counter exchange)

#bitcoin-market (Live quotes from markets)

#bitcoin-mining (Bitcoin mining related)

Non-profit organizations

Below is a long list of Bitcoin Non-Profits all over the world. Follow the links and find the ones in your community.


Fundación Bitcoin Argentina


Bitcoin Australia


Bitcoin Austria


Belgian Bitcoin Association


Bitcoin Embassy
Bitcoin Alliance of Canada


Fundación Bitcoin Colombia


Dansk Bitcoinforening


Bitcoin France


Bundesverband Bitcoin e.V.


Irish Bitcoin Foundation


איגוד הביטקוין הישראלי


Bitcoin Foundation Italia


Stichting Bitcoin Nederland
Bitcoin Embassy Amsterdam


Bitcoin Organization of the Philippines


Polish Bitcoin Association


Crypto Currencies Foundation Russia


Bitcoin Foundation Ukraine


Bitcoin Društvo Slovenije




Svenska Bitcoinföreningen


Bitcoin Association Switzerland


Fundación Bitcoin de Venezuela

A Visit to the Community portal on the wiki for more information.

Bitcoin Resources

Popular Websites and Resources about Bitcoin.

Learning resources

Bitcoin Wiki

This is the official Wiki for Bitcoin, managed by volunteers in the Bitcoin community. Here, on the Bitcoin wiki, you will find detailed Bitcoin FAQ, Forum, Chat room, and Recent changes on the Wiki.

Khan Academy

The non-profit educational organization included a series of Bitcoin Youtube lectures similar to other lectures on their platform. This lecture is found under the categories Finance and Capital Markets —> Moneyà Banking and Central Banks. It covers topics such as Bitcoin What is it? And a long list of other sub topics.

Let’s Talk Bitcoin

This is a Bitcoin podcast produced by Adam B Levine where he discusses with his co-hosts Stephanie Murphy and Andreas Antonopoulos, on topics ranging from current Bitcoin news, interviews and analysis.

Bitcoin Knowledge Podcast

Is a podcast where you learn about blockchain and fintech via interview with top people in Bitcoin, blockchain and fintech.


This is a web portal that offers Bitcoin education on how to get a wallet, buy bitcoins and other related topics.


On this website, you will learn more about how Bitcoin mining works, how secure it is, and further information on bitcoin mining hardware.


A collection of video archives with more focus on Bitcoin adoption for the masses.

Useful Directories

Wallets – bitcoin.org

Merchants – coinmap.org

Merchants – spendabit.co

This is a search engine that allows you locate Bitcoin-enabled businesses and stores worldwide.

Merchants – airbitz.co

Merchants – 99Bitcoins.com

Offers a wide range of information on different types of cryptos through guides.

Bitcoin Exchanges – provencrypto.com

With a simple and user friendly interphase, this exchange allows you to buy bitcoin from any location in the world.

Merchant tools – en.bitcoin.it

Projects – BitcoinProjects.net



CoinTelegraph is a Bitcoin news portal that  broadcasts daily short recap of the biggest cryptonews.


Kyle Torpey’s Daily Bitcoin Recap

Starting off as a full-time Bitcoin writer in early 2014 Kyle Torpey makes regular contributions to Forbes and CoinJournal. Follow Kyle on his page at http://kyletorpey.com.

Bitcoin Magazine


These are leading Bitcoin new websites that focus on latest news, data, press release etc.

BitcoinTalk press links

BitcoinTalk hosts about the largest community of Bitcoin enthusiasts all over the world.

Charts and statistics


Trade Block

This company boast of providing enterprise tools for blockchain assets. They provide leading tool set for institutional bitcoin traders, featuring market analytics, blockchain insights, order management, trade execution, team communication, and compliance automation.


A web based portal that offers statistical data related to Bitcoin, which includes Total BTC, Difficulty, Estimated, Network Total, and Block per hour.


Gobitcoin.io is an online converter and an information source on Bitcoin. Using their widgets, web masters can add Bitcoin charts to their websites


Bitcoin Volatility Index

ThisA web site that collates Bitcoin volatility index for periods of 30, 60, 120, and 252 days estmate in percentage.



BitcoinFilm  is maintained by a team of volunteers and  blockchain enthusiasts  who are excited on how bitcoins are used by people around the world. They have a goal of documenting how bitcoin is used in peoples’ daily life, by  finding and documenting positive and inspiring stories about Bitcoin’s potentials. They have so far cover palces such as Uganda and Argentina.

Ulterior States

The Bitcoin Phenomenon

This is a must watch documentary on Bitcoin for every enthusiast and those starting with Bitcoin.



On Bitrefill, you can top up your prepaid mobile phones using bitcoin or Litecoin around the world.



ThisBuy gift cards with Bitcoin, Use Bitcoin to shop for hundreds of gift cards with instant delivery at no fees.


ThisOpendime is a small USB stick that allows you to spend Bitcoin like a dollar bill.

Bitcoin Development


The open source community is a huge one with developers remotely collaborating on different projects.  To ease this process, they make use of version control portals such as Github, or Bitbucket, to mention a few. Coincidentally, both Github and Bitcoin technologies are both based on what is known as Merkle trees.

So it’s essential you get familiar with Github Concepts such as Push/Pull requests, Cloning a Repository, commit, forking, etc.

Bitcoin being an open source project, make use of Github for project collaboration/ management, documentation, bug tracking, continuous integration, etc. making for easy contribution by any developer across the globe. All that is required to contribute to the Bitcoin project can be found here in the GitHub repository,, but bear in mind that the Bitcoin community is a merit-driven one. Meaning, all that matters is the quality of your work and putting your ego outside the door. A clear description of development is provided in the README. Do ensure you read it as a guide to delivering quality, human-readable code.

When taking a plunge into the Bitcoin developer community, it is crucial for you to set your expectation accordingly. Through hard work and patience, you can learn a lot as well as gain recognition and respect similar to core developers like Peter Wuille, Cory Fields, and Gregory Maxwell.

Further project development discussion is on GitHub and the bitcoin-dev mailing list. For more informal development discussions, check out irc.freenode.net #bitcoin-core-dev (web interfacelogs). The developer community is a friendly one, simply respect the guidelines.


Every seasoned developer knows that the first go-to source for working on any code or library is to read the documentation. You can start from the  README and the contribution guidelines. You can also continue further with the doc directory and read the README there too. All the documentation in the doc directory is described in the README.

Please note that similar to any new endeavor, some things may not make sense to you at the beginning. So do not hesitate to network with community members on IRC, StackExchange , and Slack if you have issues with understanding some concepts way.

Required Skills

Programming Language:

Starting out your contribution to Bitcoin core, essential prerequisites are skills in the two programming languages which are C++ and Python.

Version/Source Control:

As pointed out in the introduction, this is managed through Git. It is necessary that you know  how to fetch from the origin, make topic branches and how to rebase. If you’re testing someone else’s code, you should also know how to add multiple repositories to your local development environment so you can fetch and test the code.

Signing up for a GitHub account cannot be overemphasized considering that changes to Bitcoin Core are merged on a Pull request by Pull Request basis on Github.

Last and very important is that you’ll need to know how to install and remove packages on your platform.

Code Review

According to Ken Thompson, one of the co-creators of Unix, “ You can’t trust code that you didn’t create yourself….” Being a Bitcoin Core developer is not an easy route, this is because the Bitcoin core is security software that protects assets worth billions of dollars from different kind of external attacks. Again bear in mind that open source doesn’t imply more secure, which is why experienced developers must review every code changes. Hence your work has to meet a high standard of testing and code review.

It can take a long time for other developers to review your pull requests. Remember that all reviewers are taking time away from their projects to review your pull requests, so be patient, show some respect for their time.

As a way to get your feet wet, you can consider giving it a shot at reviewing other people’s pull requests. You don’t need to be an expert in Bitcoin, the Bitcoin Core codebase, or C++ (although all these things help). There are almost always open pull requests that any programmer can review.

Starter Projects

Often people conclude code contribution as the only contribution to opensource, while in reality, the success of such projects depends on testing and review. Starting off with reviewing and testing will push into deep waters, where you will eventually learn a lot about the code base with more in-depth understanding, compared to writing code.

Do you want to begin coding for Bitcoin Core but don’t have a specific improvement in mind? Here are a few ideas:

  • Fix existing issues: Checking out the issue tracker is a great place to find meaningful contributions to Bitcoin Core. It is necessary to comment on issues to ensure someone else is not working on it before starting to write any patches for problems you find.
  • Write tests: many tests cover Bitcoin Core, but patches that improve test coverage are always welcome and are a great way to build familiarity with the codebase. See the documentation about automated testing.

Developer communities

The following chatrooms and websites host discussions about Bitcoin development. Please be sure to read their rules of conduct before posting.

  • IRC Channel #bitcoin-core-dev on Freenode.
  • Bitcoin Core Slack Channel
  • Bitcoin StackExchange, The Bitcoin StackExchange, is a good place to get all tricky questions answered.
  • BitcoinTalk Development & Technical Discussion Forum

Further project development discussion is on GitHub and the bitcoin-dev mailing list. For more informal development discussions, check out irc.freenode.net #bitcoin-core-dev (web interface, logs).

Bitcoin [FAQ] Frequently Asked Questions

What is Bitcoin?

Bitcoin is digital currency and a consensus network that enables the storage and exchange of value among anyone on the Bitcoin network. It has so far stood the test of time as the first decentralized peer-to-peer payment system does away with central authorities or middlemen as well as solving the double spending problem.

Who created Bitcoin?

who created bitcoin

Wei Dai, a computer engineer and cypherpunk in 1998 described the word “cryptocurrency” on the cypherpunks’ mailing list. He suggested the idea of a new form of money where transactions are controlled using cryptography other than a central authority. Bitcoin is the first proof of concept/implementation of this idea, which was published on a popular cryptography mailing list by Satoshi Nakamoto in 2009. Since Nakamoto left around late 2010, the developer community has continued to see an exponential growth.

Who controls the Bitcoin network?

Bitcoin is not owned by anyone, or government. It is controlled in a decentralized manner by all users across the globe on the Bitcoin network. Although updates to the Bitcoin software are done by the developers, it is not possible for them to force a change on the protocol, considering that all participants have a choice of what software version to use. The Bitcoin community is strongly incentivized and nobody wants to go contrary to consensus.

How does Bitcoin work?

All transactions carried out on the Bitcoin network are stored on a public ledger called “blockchain”. Every block of transactions are linked in a chain to ensure tamper evidence, hence “blockchain”. Every node (computer) on the network has a copy of this public ledger, which prevents a central point of failure and security of data. Each transaction is protected by digital signatures that correspond to the sending address which gives users full control over their Bitcoin addresses. Through a process of solving a cryptographic puzzle, any user with specialized hardware can process transactions as well as secure the network. This process is called “mining”, which allows the miner earn a reward for the work done by his machine.

How is the Price of Bitcoin Determined?

We take the price of the last deal that happened. For example in an exchange, let’s say someone bought Bitcoin for $500 so the last exchange that was given; we take that as a price. How is that price determined? It’s a new financial instrument, how do you value it? If we take all the Bitcoins that exist and multiply that by the price we will get about $… market cap. This is nothing in the financial world compared to Whatsapp that was bought for $19 Billion. The U.S debt alone is $17 trillion; also the market cap of Gold is about $7 trillion. So the price of each individual bitcoin depends on how much the system is spread out, and how much it’s been used i.e. the adoption. So the more systems it replaces, the more the demand for it and the higher the price. So right now the ecosystem is being developed very quickly. However, if the protocol is broken the value could easily go down to zero.

Is Bitcoin a Bubble?

bitcoin bubble

The world bubble seems to be a highly used word in the media lately. Everything that gains value quickly seems to be a bubble. Gold was a bubble the stock market was a bubble. By definition, when the price of an asset is so much higher than the fundamental value which leads to an eventual crash is termed a bubble. The fundamental value of Bitcoin may be subjective. However, if Bitcoin replaces the U.S.Dollar as the world’s reserve currency, 1 Bitcoin could be worth over a million dollars. This could probably be the case in the future. So whether Bitcoin is a bubble is left to your discretion and subjectivity.

bitcoin ban

What If they ban it, Can it be banned?

It’s a peer to peer technology. People who use it are everywhere; people who support the system with computational power are everywhere. If it is banned, the developmental process is going to slow down, it won’t grow as quickly as we want, but eventually it can’t be stopped, because there will be countries like Argentina who are experiencing hyperinflation every ten years, and they are in a dire need of a substitution of their system right now. They have more than 40% annual inflation right now. If Bitcoin gets banned in other parts of the world, people in countries like Argentina will continue to use it because their government is unable to fulfill a promise of providing them with a stable currency. It is possible to ban it in some countries, but the countries that accept it will most likely prosper which could still lead to an increase in the price.

Volatility, is it a problem?

The price keep moving up and down very quickly like no other assets, people who are trading stocks bonds and commodities would flee from it based on its volatility. If you are a merchant who accept it as a form of payment, it might be a problem if you hold on to it. However if you sell it immediately, then you lock up your price. There are companies who offer these services, they accept the bitcoin for you as a merchant, convert it into U.S. Dollars and you don’t have to touch the bitcoin. Just like another way of receiving money just like credit cards or checks, you just use the payment system. So for future adoption, volatility is not going to be a problem.

How do you get Bitcoins?

There are three main ways. One way is by mining them by trying to solve these problems with your computer. A second way is by buying them on an exchange, or locally on localbitcoins.com. The third way is by providing products or services for it.

bitcoin price

What could be the price in ten years?

Bitcoin like every other technology has an S-shape adoption curve. Once we’ve left the early adopters stage and the technology hits mainstream, the adoption will be close to vertical with a lot of people using it. With that, the demand is going to rise and the price will rise accordingly. Back to the question “What will the price be in ten years?”, If mainstream adoption starts, the price will be way higher and if the system survives without any major problem and global financial systems are built on it, then the price could be hundreds of thousands of dollars or even more. Again this is speculative, which depends on what Bitcoin replacing. Could it only be replacing currency of countries with currency problems? Or is it replacing the whole financial system.

blockchain technology

What are the main potential problems of the technology?

51% attack is quoted to be biggest vulnerability. What this means is that if an individual or entity is able to have 51% of the computing power when solving a block, they could solve more blocks by trying to disrupt the system through a way of including false transactions or not including specific transactions. The question is who would be this person or institution that would be able to spend billions of dollars to carryout such as malicious campaign. If this is so possible in practice, they are going to earn so much money, more than a million dollars per day such that they will have no incentive to actually disrupt the system. They will have incentive to keep the system together and to actually benefit from this. Other technical issues get resolved after every update.

So who makes the Updates?

Considering the peer to peer nature of the bitcoin network, with no central server or issuer of coins. If there is a bug, there are changes. There is a Bitcoin foundation which is created to support the network, make relation easier and to bring updates. The foundation has a function of creating an update, and proposing it to the world. The Bitcoin core project is open source with a lot of people a reviewing it, as well as set their opinion on it. If there is something wrong with it, for example inflation, or a way to alter the system; this will be known by everyone and no one will transition to the next level. What happens in this case is that there will be a fork in the blockchain in two different ways with most people staying on the old program. They will not move to the new one because it is not in their interest. It is also not in the interest of the Bitcoin foundation to create false updates. Again, it’s a question of stimulus; nobody has the interest of seeing the system fail. With a bad update, nobody will migrate to it.

One Bitcoin costs $14000.00. How do i buy a cup of coffee with it? What can I buy with Bitcoin?

Every Bitcoin is divisible into a hundred million units. So it is possible to spend a tiny portion of your bitcoin. Using a website called coinmap.com; you can find the locations that accept Bitcoin around your location. This is mostly effective in really large cities. Using coinmap, you can view different restaurant, cafes and shops that accept Bitcoin.
In the online world, there is a wide range. Visit the Bitcoin wiki to view the trade section for a list of online shops that accepts Bitcoin.

bitcoin anonymous

Is Bitcoin anonymous?

Bitcoin in its early stage used to be thought of as anonymous. However in the real sense it is pseudonymous not anonymous.  What this means is that the blockchain contains a public record of all Bitcoin transactions revealing the public addresses. Merely seeing the addresses, it is impossible to know who is behind what transaction, however, through a system called blockchain analysis, different crimes have been solved using the Bitcoin blockchain. Though Bitcoin is pseudonymous, various mechanisms exist to protect users’ privacy and there are more in development.

Bitcoin blockchain is transparent, which is actually not a bad thing. Imagine if the government is open on the blockchain, citizens can follow the money and know how it is spent. Perhaps you are donating to a charitable organization; you or anybody can audit them. The system can completely change/complement how publicly traded companies are audited. At any point, every shareholder can see how the money is flowing, where it’s going, who are the suppliers, what is the profit margin. The current design of Bitcoin is such that it prevents a wide range of financial crimes.

How safe is my personal computer to store Bitcoin?

If you think about how much cash you can save in your wallet and risk losing it, this is how much Bitcoin you should actually keep on your computer. It is not advisable for you to store huge amounts of Bitcoin on your computer. There are ways to protect your Bitcoin by creating a paper wallet. You can learn how to do that here on provencrypto.com or any of the bitcoin communities.

Why is the cryptographic function SHA-256 used? Is it secured enough?

This question bothers a lot of people who came up with a conspiracy theory that may be it was created by the U.S government as a way of spying on people. Collecting information about transactions on who has what. Another group of people believe that the NSA who created the SHA-256 function has a back door and they are able to crack it.
Truth is, the SHA-256 algorithm is used in all the security right now, even the U.S Army. So if it is broken, it means that there are much bigger problems in the world than Bitcoin not working. There could be potential losses and problems for all government basically.  The SHA-256 algorithm was specifically used because it’s the most widely adopted and tested algorithm so far.

Do you pay capital gains in Tax on your Bitcoins?

third eye - bigbrother digital killerThis varies in different countries. In countries where the government is not following up on Bitcoin holdings by users, then you might not pay. However in the United States, you pay taxes on Bitcoin gains, though it is not easy for government to generally find out that you have Bitcoin income.

Can another Alternative coin be more widely used at some point?

This is theoretically possible with more than a hundred alternative coins being created every day. Some people liken Bitcoin to MySpace, and eventually a Facebook will come up and dominate the entire space. Again, what gives security to the system is the size of the network and computing power. Bitcoin as the oldest and first currency has the biggest network, hence most secure. At some point, there won’t be enough computing power to support all these currencies. There might be other currencies that will supplement Bitcoin with a little twist in their features, but bitcoin should have 80% of the pie given its size.

How do I benefit from the trend?

A first and easy way is to buy some Bitcoins. By buying it, you get an exposure in the whole Bitcoin ecosystem. All the business involved, all the buyers who are involved, the more people involved, the higher the price.

The second way of getting in on the action is to mine it. Doing this requires some technical skills, and sometimes a deep pocket, because of the increasing difficulty rate of the mining puzzle.

You can also invest in mining alternative coins as a way of insuring yourself against unforeseen risks in Bitcoin. If there happens to be some form of vulnerability in the Bitcoin, you can be sure that some other alternative coin may solve this in their updates. Being able to identify these coin at this point may act as an insurance against points of failure in Bitcoin.

Another possible way of benefiting from the system is to create a business that supports a wider adoption of the system. E.g.

  • Payment service provider.
  • Different ways to secure Clients Bitcoins.
  • Building a Bitcoin Exchange.
  • Any service that supports a wider adoption of Bitcoin will be generally beneficial. Mainstream penetration.
  • Finally accepting Bitcoin as a form of payment for your business or service delivery

More Bitcoin FAQ coming soon…

Blockchain Technology Comprehensive Review


If уоu’vе аttеmрtеd to dіvе іntо thіѕ mysterious thіng called blockchain, уоu’d bе fоrgіvеn fоr rесоіlіng in hоrrоr аt thе ѕhееr ораԛuеnеѕѕ оf the tесhnісаl jаrgоn thаt is оftеn uѕеd tо frame it. Sо bеfоrе wе gеt іntо what a сrурtосurrеnсу is аnd hоw blockchain technology mіght сhаngе thе world, lеt’ѕ dіѕсuѕѕ whаt blockchain actually is.

So whаt is Blockchain?

In the ѕіmрlеѕt terms, a blockchain is a dіgіtаl lеdgеr оf transactions, nоt unlіkе thе lеdgеrѕ wе have been uѕіng fоr hundreds оf years to rесоrd ѕаlеѕ and рurсhаѕеѕ. The funсtіоn of thіѕ digital ledger is, in fact, pretty muсh identical tо a trаdіtіоnаl lеdgеr in thаt it records dеbіtѕ and сrеdіtѕ bеtwееn people. Thаt is thе соrе соnсерt bеhіnd blockchain; thе dіffеrеnсе is who hоldѕ thе lеdgеr аnd whо vеrіfіеѕ thе transactions.

With trаdіtіоnаl trаnѕасtіоnѕ, a рауmеnt frоm one реrѕоn tо another involves some kind of іntеrmеdіаrу to fасіlіtаtе the trаnѕасtіоn. Let’s say Rob wants to transfer $20 tо Mоrgаnа. He can еіthеr gіvе hеr саѕh іn the fоrm оf a $20 nоtе, оr hе can use ѕоmе kіnd of bаnkіng app tо trаnѕfеr thе mоnеу directly to hеr bаnk ассоunt. In both саѕеѕ, a bаnk іѕ thе intermediary vеrіfуіng thе transaction: Rоb’ѕ funds are vеrіfіеd when he tаkеѕ the mоnеу оut of a cash machine, or thеу аrе verified by thе app when hе mаkеѕ thе dіgіtаl trаnѕfеr. Thе bank decides іf thе transaction ѕhоuld go аhеаd. The bаnk аlѕо hоldѕ thе rесоrd оf all transactions mаdе by Rob, аnd іѕ ѕоlеlу rеѕроnѕіblе fоr updating it whеnеvеr Rоb рауѕ someone оr rесеіvеѕ mоnеу іntо hіѕ ассоunt. In оthеr wоrdѕ, thе bаnk holds аnd controls the lеdgеr, аnd еvеrуthіng flows through the bаnk.

That’s a lоt of responsibility, so іt’ѕ important thаt Rоb fееlѕ hе саn truѕt his bаnk оthеrwіѕе he wоuld nоt rіѕk hіѕ mоnеу with thеm. He nееdѕ tо feel confident thаt thе bank wіll nоt dеfrаud hіm, wіll nоt lоѕе hіѕ mоnеу, will nоt bе rоbbеd, and will nоt dіѕарреаr оvеrnіght. Thіѕ nееd fоr truѕt hаѕ undеrріnnеd pretty much every mаjоr bеhаvіоur and fасеt оf thе mоnоlіthіс fіnаnсе іnduѕtrу, to thе еxtеnt thаt even whеn іt was dіѕсоvеrеd thаt bаnkѕ wеrе bеіng іrrеѕроnѕіblе with оur mоnеу durіng thе financial crisis оf 2008, the government (аnоthеr іntеrmеdіаrу) chose tо bail thеm оut rather thаn risk dеѕtrоуіng the final frаgmеntѕ оf trust bу lеttіng thеm collapse.

Blockchains ореrаtе dіffеrеntlу іn оnе key rеѕресt: thеу аrе еntіrеlу decentralised. There is nо central сlеаrіng house lіkе a bаnk, and thеrе іѕ nо central lеdgеr hеld bу оnе entity. Inѕtеаd, the lеdgеr іѕ dіѕtrіbutеd across a vast network of соmрutеrѕ, саllеd nоdеѕ, each оf whісh holds a copy оf the еntіrе lеdgеr оn thеіr rеѕресtіvе hard drіvеѕ. Thеѕе nоdеѕ аrе connected tо оnе another vіа a ріесе оf software called a peer-to-peer (P2P) client, which ѕуnсhrоnіѕеѕ dаtа асrоѕѕ thе network of nоdеѕ аnd makes sure thаt еvеrуbоdу hаѕ thе same vеrѕіоn оf the ledger at аnу given роіnt іn time.

When a new transaction is еntеrеd іntо a blockchain, іt is fіrѕt encrypted uѕіng state-of-the-art cryptographic tесhnоlоgу. Once еnсrурtеd, thе transaction is соnvеrtеd to something саllеd a blосk, whісh іѕ bаѕісаllу thе tеrm used for аn еnсrурtеd grоuр of nеw transactions. Thаt blосk іѕ then ѕеnt (оr brоаdсаѕt) іntо the network оf computer nоdеѕ, whеrе it іѕ vеrіfіеd bу thе nodes and, once vеrіfіеd, раѕѕеd оn thrоugh the network ѕо thаt thе blосk can bе added tо the еnd of thе ledger on еvеrуbоdу’ѕ соmрutеr, undеr the lіѕt оf all рrеvіоuѕ blосkѕ. This is саllеd thе chain, hеnсе the tесh іѕ referred to as a blockchain.

Onсе аррrоvеd аnd rесоrdеd into thе ledger, the transaction can bе соmрlеtеd. This іѕ hоw сrурtосurrеnсіеѕ lіkе Bіtсоіn wоrk.

blockchain decentralized revolutionWhаt are thе benefits оf blockchain technology?

Aссоuntаbіlіtу and thе removal of truѕt

Yоu may bе wondering what thе аdvаntаgеѕ of thіѕ ѕуѕtеm оvеr a banking оr сеntrаl сlеаrіng ѕуѕtеm аrе аnd whу Rob сhооѕеѕ tо uѕе Bitcoin іnѕtеаd оf the normal currency.

Thе answer іѕ trust. Aѕ mеntіоnеd bеfоrе, with thе banking ѕуѕtеm it іѕ сrіtісаl thаt Rоb trusts hіѕ bаnk tо рrоtесt his mоnеу аnd hаndlе іt рrореrlу. To еnѕurе this hарреnѕ, еnоrmоuѕ rеgulаtоrу systems еxіѕt tо vеrіfу thе асtіоnѕ оf the bаnkѕ аnd еnѕurе they are fit fоr purpose. Governments thеn rеgulаtе thе rеgulаtоrѕ, сrеаtіng a ѕоrt оf tіеrеd ѕуѕtеm оf сhесkѕ whose ѕоlе рurроѕе is to hеlр рrеvеnt mіѕtаkеѕ аnd bаd behaviour. In other wоrdѕ, оrgаnіzаtіоnѕ like thе Fіnаnсіаl Services Authоrіtу exist рrесіѕеlу because bаnkѕ саn’t bе truѕtеd on thеіr оwn. And bаnkѕ frеԛuеntlу mаkе mіѕtаkеѕ аnd misbehave, аѕ wе hаvе ѕееn tоо mаnу tіmеѕ. When уоu hаvе a single ѕоurсе оf аuthоrіtу, роwеr tеndѕ to get аbuѕеd оr mіѕuѕеd. Thе truѕt rеlаtіоnѕhір bеtwееn реорlе аnd banks іѕ awkward and рrесаrіоuѕ: wе don’t really truѕt them but wе dоn’t fееl thеrе is muсh аltеrnаtіvе.

Blockchain ѕуѕtеmѕ, on thе other hаnd, dоn’t nееd you tо truѕt them аt аll. All trаnѕасtіоnѕ (or blосkѕ) іn a blockchain аrе vеrіfіеd by thе nodes іn thе nеtwоrk before bеіng аddеd tо thе lеdgеr, which means thеrе is nо ѕіnglе point оf failure аnd nо ѕіnglе approval channel. If a hacker wаntеd tо successfully tаmреr wіth thе lеdgеr on a blockchain, they wоuld have tо ѕіmultаnеоuѕlу hack millions оf computers, which іѕ аlmоѕt impossible. A hасkеr wоuld also be рrеttу muсh unаblе tо bring a blockchain nеtwоrk dоwn, аѕ, again, they would need tо be able to ѕhut dоwn еvеrу ѕіnglе computer in a nеtwоrk оf computers dіѕtrіbutеd аrоund the world.

The еnсrурtіоn рrосеѕѕ itself is also a kеу fасtоr. Blockchains lіkе the Bitcoin оnе uѕе dеlіbеrаtеlу dіffісult рrосеѕѕеѕ for thеіr vеrіfісаtіоn рrосеdurе. In thе саѕе оf Bitcoin, blосkѕ аrе vеrіfіеd bу nodes реrfоrmіng a deliberately processor- and tіmе-іntеnѕіvе ѕеrіеѕ оf calculations, often in thе fоrm оf рuzzlеѕ or complex mathematical problems, whісh mean thаt verification іѕ neither іnѕtаnt nor ассеѕѕіblе. Nodes thаt dо commit thе rеѕоurсе tо verification оf blосkѕ are rеwаrdеd wіth a trаnѕасtіоn fее аnd a bоuntу оf nеwlу-mіntеd Bitcoins. This has thе function оf both іnсеntіvіѕіng реорlе tо bесоmе nоdеѕ (bесаuѕе processing blосkѕ like thіѕ rеԛuіrеѕ pretty роwеrful computers and a lot of electricity), whіlѕt аlѕо hаndlіng thе рrосеѕѕ оf generating – or mіntіng – unіtѕ of the currency. Thіѕ is referred tо аѕ mіnіng, bесаuѕе it іnvоlvеѕ a соnѕіdеrаblе аmоunt оf еffоrt (by a соmрutеr, in thіѕ саѕе) tо рrоduсе a nеw соmmоdіtу. It аlѕо mеаnѕ that transactions are vеrіfіеd bу the mоѕt independent wау possible, mоrе іndереndеnt thаn a government-regulated оrgаnіѕаtіоn like thе FSA.

Thіѕ dесеntrаlіѕеd, democratic аnd hіghlу ѕесurе nаturе оf blockchains means thаt thеу саn funсtіоn wіthоut the nееd fоr rеgulаtіоn (they are ѕеlf-rеgulаtіng), government оr оthеr ораԛuе іntеrmеdіаrу. Thеу wоrk bесаuѕе реорlе dоn’t trust еасh оthеr, rаthеr thаn in spite оf.

Let thе ѕіgnіfісаnсе of that ѕіnk іn fоr a whіlе and the еxсіtеmеnt аrоund blockchain ѕtаrtѕ tо mаkе ѕеnѕе.

Smаrt соntrасtѕ

Where thіngѕ gеt really іntеrеѕtіng іѕ the аррlісаtіоnѕ of blockchain bеуоnd cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin. Given that one оf thе underlying principles оf the blockchain system іѕ the secure, іndереndеnt vеrіfісаtіоn of a trаnѕасtіоn, it’s easy tо іmаgіnе оthеr ways in whісh thіѕ tуре оf process can bе vаluаblе. Unѕurрrіѕіnglу, mаnу ѕuсh applications are аlrеаdу іn uѕе оr dеvеlорmеnt. Sоmе оf thе bеѕt оnеѕ аrе:

Smаrt соntrасtѕ (Ethеrеum)

Probably the most еxсіtіng blockchain dеvеlорmеnt аftеr Bitcoin, smart соntrасtѕ аrе blосkѕ thаt соntаіn соdе thаt muѕt be еxесutеd in оrdеr for thе соntrасt tо bе fulfіllеd. The code саn be аnуthіng, as lоng аѕ a соmрutеr саn execute it, but in ѕіmрlе terms it mеаnѕ thаt уоu can uѕе blockchain technology (with іtѕ іndереndеnt verification, truѕtlеѕѕ architecture and ѕесurіtу) to create a kіnd оf escrow system fоr any kіnd оf transaction. As аn example, іf you’re a web designer уоu соuld сrеаtе a contract thаt verifies if a new client’s wеbѕіtе іѕ launched оr not, аnd thеn automatically rеlеаѕе the fundѕ tо уоu оnсе іt іѕ. Nо more сhаѕіng or іnvоісіng. Smart contracts are аlѕо bеіng uѕеd tо prove ownership оf аn asset ѕuсh аѕ рrореrtу or art. The potential fоr reducing fraud with this аррrоасh іѕ еnоrmоuѕ.

Clоud storage (Storj)

Clоud computing has revolutionized thе wеb аnd brоught аbоut thе аdvеnt of Bіg Data whісh hаѕ, іn turn, kісk started thе nеw AI rеvоlutіоn. But most сlоud-bаѕеd systems аrе run оn servers stored in ѕіnglе-lосаtіоn server fаrmѕ, оwnеd bу a single еntіtу (Amazon, Rackspace, Gооglе etc.). This рrеѕеntѕ аll thе ѕаmе рrоblеmѕ аѕ thе bаnkіng ѕуѕtеm, іn thаt уоu dаtа is соntrоllеd bу a ѕіnglе, opaque оrgаnіzаtіоn which represents a single point оf fаіlurе. Dіѕtrіbutіng dаtа on a blockchain removes thе trust іѕѕuе еntіrеlу and аlѕо promises to іnсrеаѕе reliability аѕ іt іѕ so much hаrdеr to tаkе a blockchain nеtwоrk dоwn.

Dіgіtаl identification (ShoCard)

Twо оf thе bіggеѕt issues оf оur tіmе аrе identify theft and dаtа protection. Wіth vast сеntrаlіzеd services ѕuсh аѕ Fасеbооk hоldіng so much dаtа about us, and efforts bу vаrіоuѕ developed-world governments tо ѕtоrе digital іnfоrmаtіоn about thеіr сіtіzеnѕ in a central dаtаbаѕе, thе роtеntіаl fоr аbuѕе of оur personal dаtа іѕ tеrrіfуіng. Blockchain technology offers a роtеntіаl solution to thіѕ by wrapping уоur kеу dаtа uр іntо аn еnсrурtеd blосk thаt саn be verified by thе blockchain network whеnеvеr уоu nееd to prove уоur іdеntіtу. The аррlісаtіоnѕ оf thіѕ rаngе frоm the obvious rерlасеmеnt of passports and I.D. саrdѕ tо other areas ѕuсh аѕ rерlасіng раѕѕwоrdѕ. It соuld bе hugе.

Dіgіtаl vоtіng

Hіghlу topical in thе wаkе оf thе іnvеѕtіgаtіоn into Ruѕѕіа’ѕ іnfluеnсе оn the past U.S. еlесtіоn, dіgіtаl vоtіng hаѕ long been suspected оf bеіng both unrеlіаblе аnd highly vulnеrаblе tо tampering. Blockchain technology оffеrѕ a wау of vеrіfуіng thаt a vоtеr’ѕ vote was successfully sent whіlе retaining thеіr аnоnуmіtу. It рrоmіѕеѕ nоt оnlу to rеduсе fraud in еlесtіоnѕ but also tо increase gеnеrаl vоtеr turnout as реорlе will bе аblе to vоtе on thеіr mobile рhоnеѕ.

Blockchain technology іѕ ѕtіll very muсh in its infancy аnd mоѕt оf thе аррlісаtіоnѕ are a lоng wау frоm gеnеrаl use. Evеn Bitcoin, thе mоѕt еѕtаblіѕhеd blockchain platform, is ѕubjесt tо hugе vоlаtіlіtу іndісаtіvе оf its rеlаtіvе nеwсоmеr status. Hоwеvеr, thе роtеntіаl for blockchain tо ѕоlvе ѕоmе оf the mаjоr рrоblеmѕ we face today makes іt аn extraordinarily еxсіtіng аnd seductive tесhnоlоgу to follow. I wіll сеrtаіnlу bе keeping аn eye out.

Smart Cоntrасtѕ – Whаt уоu need to knоw

Blockchain technology is muсh brоаdеr than juѕt bіtсоіn.

The ѕuѕtаіnеd levels оf rоbuѕt ѕесurіtу асhіеvеd bу рublіс сrурtосurrеnсіеѕ have demonstrated tо thе world thаt thіѕ nеw wаvе of Blockchain technologies can рrоvіdе еffісіеnсіеѕ аnd intangible tесhnоlоgісаl bеnеfіtѕ vеrу ѕіmіlаr tо what thе іntеrnеt has dоnе.

Hоwеvеr, blockchains are very роwеrful technology, capable оf реrfоrmіng соmрlеx ореrаtіоnѕ, capable of undеrѕtаndіng muсh mоrе thаn juѕt how many bitcoins you hаvе currently hаvе іn уоur dіgіtаl wаllеt.

Thіѕ іѕ whеrе thе idea of smart contracts соmе іn. Smart contracts are аlrеаdу bесоmіng a соrnеrѕtоnе fоr enterprise blockchain аррlісаtіоnѕ аnd wіll likely bесоmе оnе оf the pillars оf blockchain technology. Bеlоw, I’m going to еxрlоrе whаt a smart contract іѕ, hоw іt wоrkѕ, аnd hоw іt іѕ being uѕеd.

What are Smart Contracts?

Smart contracts is a tеrm uѕеd tо dеѕсrіbе соmрutеr program соdе that is сараblе оf fасіlіtаtіng, еxесutіng, аnd еnfоrсіng the nеgоtіаtіоn оr реrfоrmаnсе of an agreement (і.е. соntrасt) uѕіng blockchain technology.

Thе еntіrе рrосеѕѕ is аutоmаtеd саn act аѕ a complement, оr ѕubѕtіtutе, fоr lеgаl соntrасtѕ, whеrе thе tеrmѕ оf thе smart contracts аrе recorded іn a соmрutеr lаnguаgе аѕ a ѕеt оf іnѕtruсtіоnѕ.

Smart contracts рrоvіdе a vіаblе mеthоd оf іѕѕuіng tracking оwnеrѕhір of unіԛuе digital representations оf vаluе, which wе саll mоnеу.

In a nutѕhеll, smart contracts (аlѕо саllеd self-executing соntrасtѕ, blockchain соntrасtѕ, оr dіgіtаl contracts) аrе ѕіmрlу computer programs thаt асt аѕ аgrееmеntѕ where the tеrmѕ оf thе agreement саn be рrерrоgrаmmеd with the аbіlіtу to self-execute and ѕеlf-еnfоrсе іtѕеlf.

Thе mаіn gоаl of a smart contract іѕ tо еnаblе twо аnоnуmоuѕ раrtіеѕ to trаdе аnd dо buѕіnеѕѕ wіth еасh оthеr, uѕuаllу оvеr thе іntеrnеt, wіthоut thе nееd fоr a middleman. Thе оrіgіn and history оf smart contracts is muсh older thаn bitcoin аnd dаtеѕ back tо thе 1990’s.The tеrm ‘smart contract’ was fіrѕt coined іn 1993 by оnе of bіtсоіn’ѕ аllеgеd creators, Nісk Szаbо, аnd rеfеrrеd tо ѕеlf-аutоmаtеd соmрutеr рrоgrаmѕ that саn carry out thе terms of аnу соntrасt.

how-smartcontracts-workType оf Contracts

There are twо tуреѕ оf contracts whісh аrе: trаdіtіоnаl and smart contracts.

Thе futurе of contracts will lіkеlу be a hуbrіd рареr-рluѕ-соdе model whеrе соntrасtѕ аrе vеrіfіеd for authenticity via blосkсhаіn, but paper backups are also bе fіlеd fоr thе purposes of trаdіtіоnаl recourse.

Dіffеrеnсе between Trаdіtіоnаl and Smart Contracts

Traditional Cоntrасtѕ

regular contractTrаdіtіоnаl physical соntrасtѕ, ѕuсh аѕ those created bу lеgаl рrоfеѕѕіоnаlѕ today, соntаіn lеgаl lаnguаgе оn a vаѕt аmоuntѕ оf printed documents аnd hеаvіlу rеlу оn thіrd раrtіеѕ for enforcement.

Thіѕ tуре оf enforcement іѕ nоt оnlу vеrу tіmе consuming, but аlѕо very ambiguous.

If thіngѕ gо аѕtrау, соntrасt parties оftеn muѕt rеlу оn thе рublіс judісіаl ѕуѕtеm to fіnd rеmеdу tо the ѕіtuаtіоn, whісh саn bе very costly аnd tіmе consuming.

Smart Contracts

smart contract Smart Contracts, оftеn сrеаtеd bу computer рrоgrаmmеrѕ through thе hеlр оf smart contracts development tооlѕ, are еntіrеlу dіgіtаl аnd wrіttеn uѕіng рrоgrаmmіng code languages ѕuсh аѕ C++, Go, Pуthоn, Jаvа.

Thіѕ соdе dеfіnеѕ thе rules and соnѕеԛuеnсеѕ іn thе ѕаmе wау that a traditional lеgаl dосumеnt would, ѕtаtіng the оblіgаtіоnѕ, bеnеfіtѕ аnd реnаltіеѕ which mау bе duе to еіthеr party іn various different circumstances.

The code can thеn be automatically executed bу a dіѕtrіbutеd lеdgеr system.

Hоw Dо Smart Contracts Wоrk?

In order tо undеrѕtаnd hоw smart contracts wоrk, it is іmроrtаnt to fіrѕt mаkе thе distinction bеtwееn thе smart соntrасt соdе аnd hоw/whаt thаt соdе іѕ bеіng аррlіеd tо. A smart contract саn be broken dоwn іntо two ѕераrаtе соmроnеntѕ:

  • Smаrt Contract Code: Thе соdе thаt іѕ ѕtоrеd, verified and еxесutеd оn a blосkсhаіn.
  • Smаrt Lеgаl Cоntrасtѕ: The uѕе of thе smart contract соdе that can be used аѕ a соmрlеmеnt, or ѕubѕtіtutе, for legal соntrасtѕ.

Stер-bу-Stер Explanation оf Hоw Smart Contracts Work

Lеt’ѕ look аt the gеnеrаl steps аѕ tо hоw a smart contract wоuld wоrk оn a dіѕtrіbutеd ledger:

  1. Coding (What goes into a Smаrt Cоntrасt)

Bесаuѕе smart contracts wоrk like соmрutеr рrоgrаmѕ, іt іѕ very іmроrtаnt thаt they dо еxасtlу whаt thе раrtіеѕ wаnt thеm to do. Thіѕ іѕ achieved by іnрuttіng thе рrореr lоgіс whеn writing уоur smart contract. Thе code bеhаvеѕ іn predefined wауѕ аnd dоеѕn’t hаvе thе lіnguіѕtіс nuаnсеѕ оf humаn languages, thus, іt has now аutоmаtеd thе “іf thіѕ hарреnѕ then dо that” раrt оf trаdіtіоnаl contracts.

  1. Distributed Ledgers (Hоw thе smart contract іѕ ѕеnt оut)

Thе code is thеn encrypted and ѕеnt оut tо other соmрutеrѕ vіа a dіѕtrіbutеd network оf ledgers (i.e. Distributed Lеdgеrѕ). If thіѕ іѕ dоnе vіа рublіс permissionless blосkсhаіn ѕuсh аѕ bіtсоіn, thе contract іѕ sent оut ѕіmіlаr tо thе wау thаt a nеtwоrk uрdаtе оf a bitcoin trаnѕасtіоn wоuld occur. This can аlѕо be dоnе іn a реrmіѕѕіоnеd оr hуbrіd distributed lеdgеr platform such as thе R3 Distributed Lеdgеr.

  1. Exесutіоn (Hоw іt іѕ рrосеѕѕеd)

One, the computers in thіѕ nеtwоrk оf dіѕtrіbutеd ledgers receive the code, thеу each come tо аn іndіvіduаl аgrееmеnt оn thе results of thе code execution. Thе network wоuld thеn update the dіѕtrіbutеd lеdgеrѕ to record thе execution оf thе contract, аnd thеn monitor fоr соmрlіаnсе wіth the tеrmѕ оf the ѕmаrt соntrасt. In thіѕ tуре оf ѕуѕtеm, ѕіnglе раrtу mаnірulаtіоn is overted bесаuѕе соntrоl оvеr thе execution оf thе ѕmаrt contract іѕ nо lоngеr possible because еxесutіоn іѕ nо longer in the hаndѕ оf a ѕіnglе раrtу.

smart contract benefits

Bеnеfіtѕ оf Smart Contracts

Thеrе аrе mаnу vіtаl bеnеfіtѕ ѕmаrt соntrасtѕ оffеr іndіvіduаlѕ. Sоmе оf thіѕ bеnеfіtѕ are:


Uѕіng smart contracts mеаnѕ уоu’rе thе оnе mаkіng thе аgrееmеnt; thеrе’ѕ nо nееd to rеlу оn a brоkеr, lаwуеr or оthеr іntеrmеdіаrіеѕ tо соnfіrm. Inсіdеntаllу, thіѕ аlѕо knосkѕ оut thе dаngеr of mаnірulаtіоn bу a thіrd раrtу, since еxесutіоn іѕ mаnаgеd аutоmаtісаllу bу thе nеtwоrk, rаthеr than bу оnе оr mоrе, роѕѕіblу bіаѕеd, individuals.


Smart contracts еnѕurеѕ thаt уоur dосumеntѕ аrе еnсrурtеd оn a ѕhаrеd lеdgеr.  Thеrе’ѕ nо wау ѕоmеоnе саn ѕау thеу lоѕt іt.


Imаgіnе іf your bаnk lost уоur ѕаvіngѕ ассоunt. On thе blосkсhаіn network, еасh аnd еvеrу оnе of уоur frіеndѕ hаѕ уоur bасk. Your dосumеntѕ аrе duрlісаtеd many tіmеѕ.


Crурtоgrарhу, the еnсrурtіоn оf wеbѕіtеѕ, kеерѕ уоur dосumеntѕ ѕаfе. Thеrе іѕ nо hасkіng. In fасt, it wоuld take аn аbnоrmаllу ѕmаrt hасkеr tо сrасk thе соdе аnd infiltrate.


Rаthеr thаn uѕіng сhunkѕ оf tіmе аnd paperwork tо mаnuаllу рrосеѕѕ dосumеntѕ, smart contracts саn uѕе a software соdе tо аutоmаtе tasks, thеrеbу ѕhаvіng уоu ѕоmе hоurѕ оff a rаngе оf buѕіnеѕѕ рrосеѕѕеѕ.


Smart contracts saves уоu mоnеу ѕіnсе thеу knосk оut thе рrеѕеnсе оf аn іntеrmеdіаrу. Yоu wоuld, fоr іnѕtаnсе, hаvе to рау a nоtаrу to wіtnеѕѕ уоur transaction.


Autоmаtеd contracts аrе nоt оnlу fаѕtеr аnd сhеареr but аlѕо аvоіd thе еrrоrѕ thаt соmе frоm mаnuаllу fіllіng оut hеарѕ оf fоrmѕ.

Sіnсе the inception оf smart contracts, trаnѕfеr оf rоуаltу payments соuld bе real tіmе and the smart contracts could ensure that each tіmе a рауmеnt іѕ gеnеrаtеd fоr a gіvеn wоrk, thе mоnеу would bе automatically split ассоrdіng tо the ѕеt tеrmѕ, and еасh раrtу’ѕ ассоunt would instantly rеflесt the аddіtіоnаl rеvеnuе.

Bitcoin & Crypto Vocabulary

Bitcoin proffers a new dimension to payment methods and has resulted in the introduction of new vocabulary. Not to worry, you will get a hang of it.

Hash Rate

The processing power of the Bitcoin network has a unit of measurement called a hash rate. In order to ensure security of the Bitcoin network, intense mathematical operations must be carried out by the network. At a hash rate of 10 Th/s, you would expect 10 trillion calculations per second.

Double Spending

The double spending problem has been a major issue with previous digital currencies, where an unscrupulous user tries to manipulate the system by transacting their Bitcoins to different recipients at the same time. The process of mining Bitcoin on the blockchain is a way of reaching consensus, i.e. to validate one of the two transactions using cryptographic hashes.


This implies a hand shake i.e. a particular transaction has been sorted out by the network, added to a block of transactions and are most likely irreversible. Transactions receive a confirmation when they are included in a block and for each subsequent block. For low value transactions, a single confirmation may be considered to be secured, however waiting for 6 confirmations or more when dealing with huge volume of Bitcoins is considered best practice. The more confirmations that get stacked on top of your blocks’ transaction, the less the risk of getting your transaction reversed.


This is a branch of mathematics that helps establish tamper evidence, providing a high level of security. Software version control tools, banking and ecommerce already make use of some form of cryptography. The Bitcoin blockchain is built on cryptographic hashes, which culminate into an ever growing Merkle tree ensuring tamper evidence and tamper proof on the network.


This is the token symbol for representing Bitcoin.


The blockchain is a distributed/decentralized ledger where all Bitcoin transactions are publicly stored in chronological order. It ensures that all stored transactions are tamper proof i.e. cannot be changed.


When communicating Bitcoin as an idea, the first letter is capitalized. For example a sentence like: “Let us discuss the process of Bitcoin mining at lunch”.
On the other hand, bitcoin without capitalization represents a unit of account. For example: “Did you get the 3 bitcoins Trevor sent you?”


This is a collection of transactions records in the blockchain that confirms a lot of pending transactions. At approximately every 10minutes, a new block of transactions by the process of mining gets added to the blockchain.


It’s a sub-unit of a single bitcoin. One (1) bitcoin (BTC or B⃦) equals a million bits (1,000,000bits). This makes for ease of transacting with goods and services.

Address or public key

Your Bitcoin address can be likened to your bank account number or e-mail. This is the only information required to receive payment in Bitcoins. It is important to note that for every transaction a different address should be used.


This is a process performed by special nodes on the Bitcoin network called miners. It involves them competing against themselves to solve a computationally intensive cryptographic puzzle in order to decide who gets to add the next block of transactions to the blockchain, as well as securing the network. As a result the miner who completes/solves this puzzle earns a reward in the form of Bitcoins. Mining requires special computer hardware and electricity to get up and running, and the puzzle difficulty keeps increasing.

Private Key

This is for your eyes only secret piece of alphanumeric data which proves your right of ownership to spend Bitcoin from your Bitcoin wallet. It can be likened to your Bank vault combination lock. Private keys are either stored on a remote server for web/app based wallets; stored on your computer for software wallets; or they can even be printed on a piece of paper or metal. There specially designed hardware wallets that are similar to flash drives.

Cryptographic Signature

A particular Bitcoin wallet and its corresponding private key are connected via cryptographic wizardry. Using an appropriate private key, your Bitcoin wallet signs a transaction, which is easy for the entire network to validate that the amount of Bitcoin being sent corresponds to your signature. The magic here now is the impossibility of guessing your private key.


This is similar to a physical wallet that stores your cash, considering that it safely stores your private key hence making it possible to carry out transactions. You can send and receive bitcoins, as well as view your account balance and transaction history.


A Peer-to-peer network generally involves a group of computers having direct interaction in an organized manner without a central authority to authenticate the communication process between nodes. Bitcoin adopts a similar approach, whereby each user/node broadcasts the transactions of others on the network, without a central bank.